Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) en kwantitatieve real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)
High purity RNA from human pituitary, bone marrow, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and thyroid tissues was purchased from the BioChain Institute (Hayward, CA) from tissues obtained by informed consent. The primers used were:
forward native TSHβ: 5'-AGCATGACTGCTCTCTTTTTCT-3'
forward new TSHβ: 5'-ATTATGCTCTCTTTTCTTGTTCTTT-3'
Native and novel inverted TSHβ: 5'-AACCAAATTGCAAATTATATCACTA-3'.
forward TSHα: 5'-ATGGATTACTACAGAAAATATGC-3'
TSHα inversa: 5'-AGATTTTGTATAATAACAAGTACT-3'
The primers were
Identification and tissue expression of an isoform of a human TSHβ splice variant
Two sets of primers were used for analysis of human TSHβ gene expression. One set (designated native TSHβ), designed to amplify the entire human TSHβ open reading frame, consisted of an upstream primer targeting a region in exon 2 before the start site of TSHβ transcription, and a downstream primer targeting a region in exon 3 that begins with a nucleotide after the stop codon. The second set of primers (designated new TSHβ) consisted of an upstream primer targeting a region at the end of the intron.
We believe these findings have important implications for understanding immunoendocrine interactions in a number of ways. The preferential expression of the TSHβ splice variant in PBL and thyroid indicates that immune-derived TSHβ differs significantly from native TSHβ. Based on our studies in mice, which showed that TSHβ-producing myeloid cells migrate to the thyroid gland where they secrete TSH (Klein and Wang, 2004), the likely source of intrathyroidal TSH in the
expressions of gratitude
This work was supported in part by NIH Grants DK035566 and DE015355. The authors thank Dina Montufar-Solis for her expert technical assistance.
The splice variant of the thyroid stimulating hormone β subunit is expressed in all fractional subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic cells and peripheral blood leukocytes and is modulated during bacterial infection
2020, General and Comparative Endocrinology
Exceptionally, the 3' end of intron 4 is used to encode the TSHβv signal peptide (Baliram et al., 2013, 2016; Vincent et al., 2009). A molecule similar to mouse TSHβv has been identified in human leukocytes, as well as many different species, and has been associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and thyroid tissue destruction (Liu et al., 2012, 2019, 2015; Schaefer and Klein, 2009). What is not clear is how TSHβv functionally contributes to the overall health and disease of the organism.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland, is used to regulate thyroid hormone secretion. It has been known for more than three decades that cells of the immune system produce TSH; however, the functional role of TSH in the immune system is unclear. We have previously shown that an alternatively spliced TSHβ isoform, termed the TSHβ splice variant (TSHβv), is the major form of TSHβ produced by hematopoietic cells in mice and humans. Most studies have linked TSHβv expression to myeloid cells of the immune system; however, plasma cells in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients have recently been shown to be a source of TSHβv for the immune system. Here we show that TSHβv is expressed in bone marrow progenitors of lymphoid cells, monocytes and granulocytes, as well as cells of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Plasma cells generated by in vitro culture with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and MLN cells from mice infected withL. monocytogenesexpressed TSHβv. There was an increase in the intensity of intracellular TSHβv expression in MLN cells after exposure to LPS, and in the ratio of TSHβv+CD138+MLN cell trackingL. monocytogenesinfection. The number of TSHβv+cells were increased in MLN cells, especially in CD138+cells, after a bacterial infection. This was confirmed by an increase in gene expression of BLIMP-1, the transcription factor for CD138, after infection. Circulating thyroxine levels decreased significantly in mice 24 hours after infection. These findings suggest that immune system TSHβv may contribute to the host immune response during bacterial infection.
thyroid stimulating hormone
2017, The Pituitary Gland: Fourth Edition
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein produced by thyrotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary gland and consists of a heterodimer of two non-covalently linked subunits, α and β. Each subunit is encoded by a separate gene located on a different chromosome and is transcribed in a coordinated manner in response to primarily stimulation by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and inhibition by thyroid hormone. The production of bioactive TSH involves a process of cotranslational glycosylation and folding that allows the combination between the nascent α and β subunits. TSH is stored in secretory granules and released into the circulation in a regulated manner, primarily in response to TRH stimulation. Circulating TSH binds to specific cell surface receptors in the thyroid gland, where it stimulates the production of thyroid hormone, which modulates many metabolic processes and inhibits TSH production. Sensitive TSH assays provide accurate measurement of circulating TSH levels. Acquired and congenital disorders of TSH production are rare causes of abnormal thyroid function, but it is important to recognize them as a possible cause of abnormal thyroid function tests.
Functional human TSHβ splice variant produced by plasma cells may be involved in immune damage to the thyroid in the patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis
2015, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
The novel TSHβ splice variant may play an important role in immunothyroid interaction. Schäfer et al. found a similar splice variant of TSHβ in humans. (Schäfer and Klein, 2009). The human TSHβ splice variant (hTSHβ) consists of a 27-nucleotide portion of intron 2 and the entire exon 3 of the human TSHβ gene.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in parts of the world where iodine levels are adequate. However, the pathogenesis of HT has not been fully elucidated. The first functional splice variant of human TSHβ was hypothesized to be involved in the pathology of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The question remains which type of intrathyroid cells express the functional TSHβ splicing variant and whether there are variations in the expression of the functional TSHβ splicing variant in the damaged thyroid gland of the HT patient. To answer this question, immune-damaged thyroids were obtained from 30 patients with AHT. The study of the location of the functional TSHβ cleavage variant in the damaged thyroid gland was performed using double immunofluorescence staining. The transcription and translation level of functional TSHβ splice variant was detected by qRT-PCR and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry method, respectively. The correlation between the expression level of the functional TSHβ splice variant and the extent of thyroid follicle damage was evaluated.
First, it was found that the functional TSHβ splice variant is mainly expressed in infiltrated plasma cells surrounding the follicles and germinal center in the damaged thyroid gland of HT patients. Of particular interest was that the TSHβ splice variant was expressed at significantly higher levels in the thyroid tissues of HT patients than in normal thyroid tissues, in addition, the level of expression of the TSHβ splice variant was positively related to the degree of damage to the thyroid follicles of patients with AHT.
These findings defined the immune system-derived functional splice variant of TSHβ in the thyroid gland of the HT patient, which exerted unique effects on the pathogenesis of HT. Meanwhile, we believe these findings have significant implications for understanding the immunoendocrine interactions in a number of ways. .
Thyroid stimulating hormone: physiology and secretion
2015, Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric
A novel function of lamb and pork: Different effects of lamb and pork consumption on thyroid hormone levels and energy metabolism of Sprague-Dawley rats
2014, International Food Research
The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of different meats (mutton and pork) had different effects on serum thyroid hormone concentrations and energy metabolism in rats than on casein, to determine if and how certain meats occur. to induce various thermal effects in humans. In this study, results indicated that different diets did not have different effects on TH via the pituitary gland, which secretes TSH by stimulating thyroid function (Schaefer & Klein, 2009). This result is also in agreement with our previous study (Feng et al., 2011).
Different effects of lamb and pork consumption on thyroid hormone levels and energy metabolism in rats were investigated. Three diets, a lamb diet (LD), a pig diet (PD) and a casein control diet (CD) were isocaloric (15.5 kJ/g dry matter). Rats in the PD group had higher serum selenium concentrations (PAG<0.05) and liver 5'-deiodinase activities (PAG<0.05), caused by a higher selenium content in pork (PM). As a result, PM consumption increased serum triiodothrionine (T3) concentrations (PAG<0.05) and decreased serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations compared to casein and lamb (LM). Compared to casein and LM powder, PM powder had higher total levels of glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, serine, and alanine (48.94 vs. 44.24 vs. 44.78), leading to higher serum concentrations of TBG (PAG<0.05) in the PD group. Compared to casein, PM powder had a higher total leucine and isoleucine content (9.87 vs. 9.21; 5.12 vs. 4.74), LM powder had a lower leucine content (8.14 vs. 9.21), which led to higher serum albumin concentrations in the PD group (PAG<0.05) and lower in the LD group (PAG<0.05). Consequently, the PD group had lower serum concentrations of free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) (PAG<0.05), which significantly reduced the rats' energy expenditure, while the LD group had higher serum FT3 concentrations (PAG<0.05), which significantly increases energy consumption. These were inferred from the various changes in liver and skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activities (PAG<0.05), Oxygen Demand (OCR) (PAG<0.05) and rectal temperature, especially on day 13 (PAG<0.05) and body weights (PAG<0.05) in the PD or LD group. We conclude that the consumption of PM or LM, with a different amino acid composition, had different effects on rat energy metabolism through the multistep regulation of TH.
Effect of duck meat consumption on thyroid hormone concentrations and energy metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats.
The aim of this study was to determine whether duck meat consumption affected serum thyroid hormone concentrations and energy metabolism in rats compared to a DC where the major protein component was casein, to determine whether and how certain foods appear to cause different thermal effects . effects in humans. In this study, the results indicated that the two diets did not have different effects on TH via the pituitary gland, which secretes TSH by stimulating thyroid function (Schaefer & Klein, 2009). Dietary selenium concentrations may influence serum thyroid hormone concentrations by regulating the activities of 5'-deiodinase (Buettner, Harney, & Larsen, 1998; Davey, Schneider, Becker, & Galton, 1999), which is responsible for the conversion of T4 in T3 in peripheral tissues (Bates & Spate, 2000; Korytkowski & Kuffner, 2007; LaFranchi, 2006).
The two diets, a duck meat diet (DMD) and a control casein diet (CD), were isocaloric (15.9 kJ/g dry matter) and contained 18.3% protein, 7.4% fat and 60.0% carbohydrates. The selenium contents in casein, duck meat powder, CD and DMD were 0.061, 0.549, 0.123 and 0.225 mg/kg. Rats in the DMD group had higher serum selenium concentrations (pag<0.05) and liver 5'-deiodinase activities (pag<0.05). As a result, duck meat consumption increased serum concentrations of triiodothrionine (T3) (pag<0.05) and decreased serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations (pag<0.05). The lowest serum concentrations of T4 (pag<0.05) were also supported by the lower total tyrosine and phenylalanine content in duck meat powder compared to casein (7.72 versus 10.13). Compared to casein, duck meat powder had higher total levels of glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, serine and alanine (44.68 vs. 49.21), leading to higher serum concentrations of TBG (pag<0.05) in the DMD group. Therefore, the DMD group had lower serum free T4 (FT4) concentrations (pag<0.05), and lower serum free T3 (FT3) concentrations at day 14 (pag<0.05), which significantly reduced the energy expenditure of rats in the DMD group, with lower Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase activities in the liver (pag<0.05), lower OCR and rectal temperature, especially on day 13 (pag<0.05), higher body weight (pag<0.05) and weight gain (pag<0.05). We conclude that duck meat consumption decreased energy metabolism in rats by regulating TH multisteps.
Sufficient conditions where sets with SSD and MR efficiency are identical
European Journal of Operational Research, Volumen 239, Número 3, 2014, blz. 756-763
Three approaches are generally used to analyze decisions under uncertainty: expected utility (EU), second-degree stochastic dominance (SSD), and mean risk models (MR), with the mean standard deviation (MS) being the best-known MR. fashion model. Because MR models generally lead to different efficient sets and are therefore an ongoing source of controversy, the specific concern of this article isNeeto propose another model of MR. Instead, we show that the efficient sets of SSD and MR are identical, provided that (a) the measure of risk satisfies both positive homogeneity and consistency with respect to the Rothschild and Stiglitz definition(s) of increasing risk (1970 ) and (b) the choice set includes the risk-free asset and satisfies a general property of location and scale, which can be interpreted as a market model. Under these circumstances, there is no controversy between the RM models and they all have a theoretical basis for decisions. They also provide a useful way to compare the estimation error related to the empirical implementation of different RM models.
A novel monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of luteinizing hormone in bovine plasma
Pet Endocrinology, Volume 48, 2014, pp. 145-157
The development of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) in bovine plasma is described. Anti-bovine LH (bLH) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced and characterized. A mAb recognizing the β subunit of bLH was used for immunoaffinity purification of substantial amounts of biologically active bLH from pituitary. Purified bLH in combination with 2 anti-bLH β subunit mAbs was used to develop a sandwich ELISA, which met all the criteria required to investigate LH secretion patterns in cattle. The ELISA standard curve was linear in the range of 0.05 to 2.5 ng/ml, and the assay proved suitable for measuring bLH in plasma without any pretreatment of the samples. Cross-reactivity and recovery tests confirmed the specificity of the method. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation varied between 3.41% and 9.40% and 9.29% and 15.84%, respectively. The analytical specificity of the method was validated in vivo by LH challenge testing in heifers using the LH-releasing peptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In conclusion, the use of mAb for this ELISA to coat the wells and label, combined with the easy one-step production of reference bLH, ensures long-term continuity in large-scale bovine LH measurements.
Global DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and may predict treatment response: a pilot study
European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO), Volumen 40, Número 11, 2014, pp. 1459-1466
In rectal cancer, not all tumors respond to neoadjuvant treatment. There is no precise predictor of response to guide patient-specific treatment. DNA methylation is a distinctive molecular pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. It is not known whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant treatment and whether there is a predictor of a possible response. Our aim was to determine whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to determine its role in predicting response to treatment.
fifty three (norte=53) patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery were identified from the pathology databases of 2 tertiary referral centers over a 4-year period. Immunohistochemical staining of treatment samples was performed using the 5-methylcytidine antibody (Eurogentec, Seraing, Belgium). Quantitative staining analysis was performed using an automated image analysis platform. The modified tumor regression grading system was used to assess tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy.
Seven (13%) patients showed a complete pathological response, while 46 (87%) patients had a partial response to neoadjuvant treatment. In 38 (72%) patients, a significant reduction in methylation was observed in post-treatment resection samples compared to pre-treatment samples (171.5 vs. 152.7,pag=0.01); methylation was elevated in 15 (28%) patients. Pre-treatment methylation was significantly correlated with tumor regression (pag<0.001), stadium T (pag=0.005), and was able to predict complete and partial pathological responders (pag=0,01).
Neoadjuvant CRT appears to alter the epigenome of rectal cancer. The significant correlation between pre-treatment DNA methylation and tumor response suggests a possible role for methylation as a biomarker of response.
Central and peripheral administrations of levothyroxine improved memory performance and enhanced brain electrical activity in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
Neuropeptides, Volume 59, 2016, pp. 111-116
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with cognitive impairment and decreased spontaneous neuronal activation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of subcutaneous (SC) and intrahippocampal (IH) administrations of levothyroxine (LT-4) on passive avoidance and spatial memory, as well as electrophysiological activity in an animal model of AD. One hundred and sixty male Wistar rats were divided into two main groups. The SC group included two Shams and four AD (vehicle or L-T4 25, 50 and 100 μg/kg); and the I.H. consisted of two Sham and two AD subgroups (vehicle or L-T4 10 μg/kg). To create an animal model of AD, amyloid beta (Aβ) plus ibotenic acid (Ibo) I.H. Rats were treated with L-T4 and/or normal saline for ten days. Passive avoidance and spatial memory were assessed in the shuttle box and Morris water maze, respectively. The uptake of a single neuronal unit was evaluated from the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. The results showed that the mean latency time(s) had increased significantly (pag<0.001) in AD animals and significantly decreased in both S.C. as in I.H. L-T4 injected AD animals, compared to the AD group (pag<0.001). The percentage of total time animals spent in the fourth target and passage through latency was significantly reduced in AD rats (pag<0.001) and was significantly elevated in both S.C. as in I.H. L-T4 injected AD animals compared to the AD group (pag<0,01,pag<0.001). The data showed that the mean number of peaks/bin decreased significantly in the AD group (pag<0.001). The SC. and the I.H. L-T4 injections in AD rats significantly increased the increase compared to the AD group (pag<0,001).
Finally, both S.C. as I.H. L-T4 injections alleviated memory deficits and spontaneous neuronal activity in rats with Aβ-induced AD. In addition, IH microinjection of L-T4 had more beneficial effects on memory and neuronal electrophysiological activity compared to S.C.
Densities, electrical conductivity and spectroscopic properties of mixtures of glycyldipeptide+ionic liquid ([C12mim]Br)+water at different temperatures
Liquid Phase Equilibrium, Volume 367, 2014, pg. 125-1
Densities, conductivity, fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of glycyl dipeptide + ionic liquid (1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C12Mixtures of mim]Br))+water at different temperatures have been measured. From the density data, the standard partial molar volume, standard partial molar volume of the transfer of three glycyldipeptides from water to aqueous medium [C12mim]Br solutions (DTVO), partial molar expandabilityand Hepler's constant are calculated. By means of electrical conductivity measurements, the critical micellar concentration (Ccmc) and a set of thermodynamic parameters of micellization of [C12mim]Br in aqueous glycyldipeptide solutions. Effects of temperature and carbohydrate chain length of glycyl dipeptides on the filling properties of the dipeptides and the critical concentration of micelles (Ccmc) dec12mim]Br were examined. Pyrene fluorescence spectra were used to determine the micropolarity shift produced by [C12mim]Br with glycyl dipeptides and the aggregation behavior of [C12mim]Br. The results of the UV-vis absorption spectra showed the binding constant between the dipeptide and [C12I]Br about itCcmcwas determined.
Multiplex localization of sequential peptide epitopes using a bead chip
Act of Analytical Chemistry, jaargang 908, 2016, pp. 150-160
Epitope mapping is crucial for the characterization of protein-specific antibodies. Typically, small overlapping peptides are chemically synthesized and immobilized to determine the specific peptide sequence. In this study, we report the use of a fast and low-cost planar microsphere chip for epitope mapping. We developed a generic strategy to express recombinant peptide libraries instead of using expensive synthetic peptide libraries. A biotin group was introducedI liveat a defined peptide position using biotin ligase. raw peptidesEscherichia coliThe lysate was coupled to streptavidin-coated microspheres by incubation, avoiding cumbersome purification procedures. For reading, we used a multiplex planar bead chip with bead populations encoded for size and fluorescence. For epitope mapping, up to 18 populations of peptide-loaded beads (at least 20 beads per peptide) displaying the primary sequence of a protein were analyzed simultaneously. If an antibody recognized an epitope, a fluorescently labeled secondary antibody generated a signal that was quantified and the average value of all granules in the population calculated. We mapped epitopes for rabbit anti-PA28γ (proteasome activator 28γ) polyclonal sera, for a murine monoclonal antibody against PA28γ and for a murine monoclonal antibody against hamster polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 as models. In each case, the identification of an individual peptide sequence from up to 18 sequences was possible. With this approach, an epitope can be mapped multiparametrically within three weeks.
Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thyroid stimulating hormone consists of two subunits called alpha and beta. The TSHB gene provides instructions for making the beta subunit. The alpha and beta subunits are bound together to produce the active form of the hormone.What is the thyroid stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland? ›
The pituitary gland makes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH tells your thyroid how much thyroid hormone it needs to make. If the thyroid hormone levels in your blood are too low, your pituitary gland makes larger amounts of TSH to tell your thyroid to work harder.What is the TSH thyroid stimulating hormone? ›
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, commonly called TSH and also referred to as thyrotropin, is a hormone that your pituitary gland releases to trigger your thyroid to produce and release its own hormones — thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).What hypothalamic and pituitary hormones regulate thyroid hormone T3 T4 secretion? ›
Your hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which triggers your pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates your thyroid to release T3 and T4.What are T3 T4 thyroid gland hormones? ›
T3 is one of two major hormones made by your thyroid, a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near the throat. The other hormone is called thyroxine (T4.) T3 and T4 work together to regulate how your body uses energy.What are alpha and beta subunits of pituitary gland? ›
Pituitary glycoprotein hormones are composed of two different subunits, the alpha- and beta-subunits. The alpha-subunit is common to all FSH, LH, and TSH, while the beta-subunit is specific for each of these hormones. We studied the effects of a potent LHRH antagonist on alpha-subunit and LH secretion in normal men.What does the pituitary gland do with TSH? ›
The pituitary is an endocrine gland located at the base of your brain that controls your endocrine system, including your thyroid. The pituitary affects the thyroid by producing a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH causes cells within your thyroid to make more T3 and T4 hormone.What is the function of the pituitary gland the thyroid gland? ›
The pituitary gland is referred to as the “master gland” because it monitors and regulates many bodily functions through the hormones that it produces, including: Growth and sexual/reproductive development and function. Glands (thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and gonads) Organs (kidneys, uterus, and breasts)What does the pituitary gland do to the thyroid gland? ›
The pituitary secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete hormones that affect body metabolism.What level of TSH indicates hypothyroidism? ›
In general, TSH results indicate the following: TSH levels over 10mU/L indicate overt hypothyroidism. People will usually need thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy. TSH levels between 4.5 and 10 mU/L indicate mildly underactive (subclinical) hypothyroidism.
Ultimately, the standard of care is to treat into the goal range for TSH, which is typically between 0.5 and 4.5 or 5. A TSH level of 10 mIU/L or higher is typically indicative of hypothyroidism. A TSH level of 4.5 to 10 mIU/L is considered indicative of subclinical hypothyroidism.What causes high TSH levels? ›
- 1) Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid) TSH often increases in response to an underactive thyroid gland (primary hypothyroidism) . ...
- 2) Iodine Deficiency or Excess. ...
- 3) Obesity. ...
- 4) Radiation Therapy. ...
- 5) Pituitary Tumors. ...
- 6) Some Toxins, Drugs, and Supplements. ...
- 7) Rare Genetic Disorders. ...
- 8) Aging.
If you had thyroid blood tests and the results indicate that your TSH levels are low or undetectable (0.1 to 0.4 mIU/L) and your thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels are in the normal range, it means you have subclinical hyperthyroidism.How do you know if your TSH is high? ›
TSH is a hormone that is created by the pituitary gland that tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone to make. Symptoms of high TSH include fatigue, depression, cold intolerance, constipation, infertility and other symptoms.Why is TSH low in hyperthyroidism? ›
TSH prompts the thyroid to make more thyroid hormones in response to low levels. If the thyroid hormone levels are too high, referred to as hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid, the pituitary will produce less TSH in an attempt to decrease production of active thyroid hormone.What is alpha subunit of TSH? ›
Pituitary glycoprotein hormones FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone) and thyrotropic hormone, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) are formed by two subunits: alpha which is essentially the same for all three hormones, and beta which is responsible for their biochemical specificity.What is a subunit of FSH? ›
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) comprises an alpha subunit and a beta subunit, whereas the FSH receptor consists of two halves with distinct functions: the N-terminal extracellular exodomain and C-terminal membrane-associated endodomain.What effect does thyroid hormone have on beta receptors? ›
Our results indicate that thyroid hormone enhances the number of beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites by synthesizing new receptor proteins resulting in increased catecholamine sensitivity.