The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and receives input from the left visual field, which controls creativity,Context and recognition of faces, places and objects.
According to left-right brain dominance theory, the left side of the brain is considered adept at tasks that are considered logical, rational, and calculating.
In contrast, the right hemisphere is better suited to artistic, creative, and spontaneous tasks (Corballis, 2014; Joseph, 1988).
In this article
lateralization of the brain
lateralization of the brainhas become a somewhat controversial topic. While evidence suggests that some mental abilities occur predominantly on one side or the other of the brain, science has overturned many previous ideas on the subject.
Psychologists now consider functions such as language, spatial processing, and certain broader tasks to be lateralized. Language uses multiple brain modules, many of which are located on the left side of the brain (Taylor, 1990).
Indeed, language represents one of the major areas of interest in brain lateralization and function for which this neurological department was first identified. But language neurons can also be divided between the two cerebral hemispheres (Riès et al., 2016) or on the right side, which is more common in left-handers (Beaumont, 2008).
The left hemisphere of the brain usually contains language processing regions such asBroca's site, which produces understandable sentences as well asWernickes Areawho understands language (Griggs, 2010).
Lesions in these areas result in speech pathologies, such as the inability to speak or hear habitually (Broca, 1865; Pinel & Barnes, 2017). Other language functions, such as associating emotions with sentences, occur in the right side of the brain (Kandel et al., 2012).
As such, language can be seen as a bridge between the two hemispheres of the brain, but with some specific functions located on one side or the other (Riès et al., 2016). Scientists have studied language, memory and other subjects using various methods such as the "Wada test".
This involves chemically deactivating one side of the brain and watching how the other side works. Logical thinking, like language, is usually located primarily in the left side of the brain (Dehaene, 1999).
Again, this is most true for right-handers, while the opposite is true for many left-handers. In contrast, the right hemisphere is more actively involved in visual or spatial processing than the left.
As such, this works when drawing, navigating a room, or other similar situations. People with lesions on the right side of the brain can become clumsy or artistically inept (McGilchrist, 2019). The right hemisphere of the brain also becomes active when recognizing faces.
As with other features, there is a degree of symmetry. The left brain can also do facial recognition, but it's more shallow than the right brain's work. The right brain also deals with other social perceptions, such as posture (Lane & Nadel, 2002).
Another characteristic of the right side of the brain is focusing attention. When a person thinks about a subject, regions on the right side of the brain light up.
Numerous other mental activities work differently on each side of the brain.
For example, the left side of the brain is more associated with positive emotions, while the right side is more associated with negative emotions (Lane & Nadel, 2002). People with depression often suffer from a disproportionate proportion of right and left brain activity (Atchley et al., 2003; Hecht, 2010).
Comparing the left brain to the right brain, the left brain processes new information into an understanding of events (becoming the "interpreter"), while the right brain is responsible for social behavior.
For example, the left side of the brain might estimate what actions would lead to eating, while the right brain might discourage some of those actions based on social norms (you don't just cut through a crowd at a party to get food).
The left brain can be thought of as an analyst, breaking concepts down into smaller, more manageable pieces. In contrast, the right brain can be seen as a synthesizer developing a more coherent vision (McGilchrist, 2019).
Interestingly, brain lateralization has deeper roots in whichperipheral nervous systems(Craig 2005). Nerves throughout the body feed in and out of the brain.
The left cerebral hemisphere mainly receives connections from the parasympathetic system, while the right cerebral hemisphere receives mainly connections from the sympathetic system (Conesa 1995).
Together, the two hemispheres work with the rest of the nervous system to maintain homeostatic balance.
The two sides of the brain are connected by various components called "commissural neural pathways", mainly through the corpus callosum.
This segment connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and exchanges information. Rarely, people are born without a corpus callosum or have it surgically removed to reduce seizures.
These cases revealed interesting information about the two hemispheres of the brain. In people without the corpus callosum, the brain can reorganize itself to perform functions that normally occur on one side rather than the other.
This can even make the person develop the use of brain regions on both sides for the same task, allowing, for example, a person to read two texts at the same time, one on each side of the brain.
The brain can also reorganize itself under other conditions (Gómez-Robles et al., 2013). This often involves using a nearby region or a mirror region to replace the lost function. This shows how the structure of the brain has a largely symmetric functionality in the left half versus the right half.
However, there are some minor differences. The body is connected to the brain, so both perception and control usually take place on the opposite side. The left hemisphere senses and controls the right hand, the right foot, the right hemisphere, the right ear, and so on.
Scientists discovered this by electrically probing the brain and observing the body's reactions, creating a map of body associations in the brain.motor cortexcreates movements to the opposite side. In right-handers, the left motor cortex is usually larger than the right motor cortex. Left-handers, on the other hand, generally have right-hemisphere dominance.
Also, some people are ambidextrous (able to use both sides effectively) or have mixed dominance (use the left side for some activities but the right side for others).
The brain has evolved to exhibit some asymmetry (Vallortigara & Rogers, 2005) which occurs at various levels, from the basic cellular arrangements, which differ on each side, to the right hemisphere, which is slightly anterior to the sitting left hemisphere (referred to as Torque Yakovlevian).
Numerous specific regions of the brain, such as the parietal operculum or the central sulcus, show left-right asymmetry. People with less brain asymmetry may suffer from less effective thought processes, even schizophrenia ormood swings(Sun et al., 2015; Ribolsi et al., 2014).
Many other disorders also have their roots in left-right brain problems (Royer et al., 2015). In a controversial theory called bicameralism, humans' left-right brains have only evolved in the last 3,000 years to have two distinct identities within them.
One of these spirits spoke and gave orders while the other listened and obeyed. Split-brain patients often behave as if they have two heads, which some neuroscientists suggest may be the case (so-called "double consciousness").
For example, one side of the body can work to prevent the other side of the body from acting. That would put a more literal spin on the term "double-mindedness."
To look for
Roger W. Sperry, a 20th-century neuroscientist, made numerous contributions to understanding the brain's twin hemispheres.
Sperry (1967) conducted studies on split-brain patients, people whose left and right brains lack the normal connections between them. These people sometimes exhibit brain dominance, but they also exhibit a range of behaviors that are characteristic of only one side or the other.
Sperry also studied animals and rewired their nervous systems to send signals to the opposite side of the body. This showed how some mental traits are wired to one side of the brain, while other mental traits can adapt to function correctly on both sides of the brain.
Sperry's work showed that the left side of the brain contains modules critical to sentence formation, but the right side retains some language skills, such as B. Understanding the social context of language.
The psychology of left-brain dominance over right-brain shows that humans have brains with overlapping but distinct halves.
How lateralized are brain functions? Not as much as people often think. Although lateralization of the brain can affect personality, it represents only a small part of an individual's overall development.
Humans generally use both sides of the brain equally. However, there are numerous specific left or right brain regions that can have powerful effects.
For example, a person who had part of the rightprefrontal lobePeople who were removed became unable to prioritize long-term rewards over short-term considerations, while people who had left-brain regions removed showed different symptoms (Lane & Nadel, 2002).
The two hemispheres make slightly different contributions in many ways: how you think, how you perceive other people and the environment, how you feel (both consciously and unconsciously), how mentally healthy you are, and myriad other facets of personality and behavior. .
Left-handers have a right-brain dominance for body control, which can also lead to the more artistic personalities these people are known for. However, as evidenced by the fact that there are numerous right-handed artists as well as left-handed rational thinkers, brain lateralization only goes so far.
The notion of left-brain dominance over right-brain has some basis, but represents a false dichotomy. The complexity of the brain involves functions from both sides working together, often communicating through the center (Beaumont, 2008) .
Many mental functions require both sides of the brain to work in unison, undermining the claim that one side trumps the other. The brain as a whole is still poorly understood and researchers continue to explore it (Halpern, 2005).
What we do know about left-brain dominance over right-brain is that it appears to have certain patterns, such as language or logic that usually occur in the left side of the brain, or emotions and social cognition that usually occur in the right side of the brain. brain.
However, these sides can be reversed in individuals or more balanced between the two sides. Furthermore, all of these functionalities have at least one equivalent on the opposite side of the brain.
The brain is plastic and in cases such as injury it recruits other regions that can be easily located on the opposite side (Pulsifer, 2004).
However, each brain is unique. Some have a different lateralization than others, and the location of functions can even evolve throughout life.
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